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1. Pipe Flanges
a. Standards of Flanges
ASTM / ASME / ANSI / ASA Standards
B16.47 Large Diameter Steel Flanges: NPS 26 through NPS 60 This Standard covers pressure-temperature ratings, materials, dimensions, tolerances, marking, and testing for pipe flanges in sizes NPS 26 through NPS 60 and in ratings Classes 75, 150,0300, 400, 600, and 900. Flanges may be cast, forged, or plate (for blind flanges only) materials. Requirements and recommendations regarding bolting and gaskets are also included.

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers issues standards for mechanical and piping design. ASME standard B16.47 covers large diameter pipes up to a 60-inch bore. ASME standard B16.7 series A flanges are equivalent to MSS SP44 flanges. ASME standard B16.7 series B matches API 605 flanges.

B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flange Fittings standard covers pressure-temperature ratings, materials, dimensions, tolerances,marking, testing, and methods of designating openings for pipe flanges and flanged fittings.The standard includes flanges with rating class designations 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500 in sizes NPS 1/2 through NPS 24, with requirements given in both metric and U.S units. The Standard is limited to flanges and flanged fittings made from cast or forged materials, and blind flanges and certain reducing flanges made from cast, forged, or plate materials. Also included in this Standard are requirements and recommendations regarding flange bolting, flange gaskets, and flange joints.

API Standards
API flanges are designed to handle very high pressures and temperatures. API flanges have a smaller bolt circle than MSS flanges. All API flanges are ring joint flanges. API flange standards start with a number followed by a letter. API standard 17D is the specification for sub-sea well head flanges.


"The Differents Between API and ANSI Flanges"
The difference between ASME/ANSI and API flanges is the fabrication material and the higher rated API operating pressure. ASME/ANSI flanges are common in industrial process systems handling water, steam, air and gas. API flanges are manufactured for high strength operating refinery systems with products such as oil and explosive gases. The flange standards API 6A and ASME/ANSI B16.5 are similar dimensionally - but the API 6A flanges are rated for higher pressures as shown in the table below:

API vs. ASME/ANSI Flanges
Flange
Pressure Class Rating (psi)
Nominal Size Range
(inches)
ASME/ANSI B16.5
API 6A
ASME/ANSI B16.5
API 6A1)
Weld neck
600
2000
1/2 - 24
113/16 - 11
900
3000
1500
5000
Blind and Threaded
600
2000
113/16 - 211/4
900
3000
113/16 - 203/4
1500
5000
113/16 - 11
1) In the old API standard, flanges ranged from 11/2 to 10(20) inches.

MSS Standards
MSS flange standards were adopted by American National Standards Institute. MSS flange standards start with an SP followed by a number. MSS SP-9 is the standard for spot facing flanges. MSS SP-44 is the standard for steel pipeline flanges. MSS SP-60 is the standard for connecting flange joint.

MSS SP-9 is the standard for spot facing flanges.
MSS SP-44 is the standard for steel pipeline flanges.
MSS SP-60 is the standard for connecting flange joint.

AWWA Standards
AWWA C207   Steel Pipe Flanges for Waterworks Service--Sizes 4 In. Through 144 In. (100 mm Through 3600 mm).

JIS Standards
B2220   Steel Welding Pipe Flanges.

KS Standards
B1503   Steel Welding Pipe Flanges.


DIN Standards
DIN 2501 Flat Flange.
DIN 2502 Flat Flange.
DIN 2503 Flat Flange.
DIN 2527 Blind Flange.
DIN 2573
Flat Flange.
DIN 2576 Flat Flange.
DIN 2631 Weld Neck Flange.
DIN 2632 Weld Neck Flange.
DIN 2633 Weld Neck Flange.
DIN 2634 Weld Neck Flange.
DIN 2635 Weld Neck Flange.
DIN 2636 Weld Neck Flange.
DIN 2637 Weld Neck Flange.
DIN 2565 Threaded Neck Flange.
DIN 2566 Threaded Neck Flange.
DIN 2641 Lap Joint Flange, Loose Flange.
DIN 2642 Lap Joint Flange, Loose Flange.
DIN 2655 Socket Joint Flange.

UNI Standards
UNI 2276-67 Flat Flange.

UNI 2277-67 Flat Flange.
UNI 2278-67 Flat Flange.
UNI 6083-67 Flat Flange.
UNI 6084-67 Flat Flange.
UNI 6088-67 Lap Joint Flange, Loose Flange.
UNI 6089-67 Lap Joint Flange, Loose Flange.
UNI 6090-67 Lap Joint Flange, Loose Flange.
UNI 2299-67 Lap Joint Flange, Loose Flange.
UNI 2300-67 Lap Joint Flange, Loose Flange.
UNI2280-67 Weld Neck Flange.
UNI2281-67 Weld Neck Flange.
UNI2282-67 Weld Neck Flange.
UNI2283-67 Weld Neck Flange.
UNI2284-67 Weld Neck Flange.
UNI2285-67 Weld Neck Flange.
UNI2286-67 Weld Neck Flange.
UNI2253-67 Threaded Neck Flange.
UNI2254-67 Threaded Neck Flange.
UNI6091-67 Blind Flange.
UNI6092-67 Blind Flange.
UNI6093-67 Blind Flange.
UNI6094-67 Blind Flange.
UNI6095-67 Blind Flange.
UNI6096-67 Blind Flange.
UNI6097-67 Blind Flange.

EN1092-1 Standards
EN1092-1   Flanges and their joints - Circular flanges for pipes, valves, fittings and accessories.   

BS Standards
BS 10:1962    Specification for Flanges and Bolting for Pipes, Valves and Fittings. This covers plain, boss, integrally cast or forged, and welding neck type flanges, in ten tables. Although BS 10 is obsolescent, it remains in use for the dimensions of light duty, economy stainless steel flanges in applications where corrosion resistance and/or hygiene, rather than high pressures and temperatures, are the primary considerations. The following tables detail the applicable standard dimensions from Tables D, E, F and H of BS 10.

BS 4504   Circular Flanges for Pipes, Valves and Fittings (PN Designated), Specification for Steel Flanges. This covers flanges in nominal pressure ranges PN 2.5 to PN 40 and nominal sizes up to DN 4000 (see table below). BS 4504 substantially agrees with ISO 7005-1 : 1992 (E) Part 1 : Steel Flanges.

SABS Standards
SABS 1123 South African pipe flanges standard
SANS 1123 South African pipe flanges standard

GOST Standards
12820-80   Russian pipe flanges standard for flat type.   
12821-80   Russian pipe flanges standard for weld neck type.  


SABS/SANS Standards
SANS-1123   South African pipe flanges standard.
b. Raw material:
All pipe flanges in carbon, stainless, alloys and chrome steel materials. ( See material requirements pages )
c. Flange types:
Weld Neck (WN), Slip on (SO), Blind (BL), Threaded (THR), Socket Weld (SW), Lap Joint (LJ), Orifice Flanges, RTJ and custom flanges.
d. Size:
Sizes Range from 1/2" to 80", DN15-DN2000. 
e.Pressure classes:
ANSI, ASME, ASTM, BS10 - Lbs/Psi 150, 250, 300, 350, 400, 600, 900, 1500, 2500
JIS B2220, KS1503 - 5K, 10K, 16K, 20K, 30K
DIN, UNI, EN1092-1, BS 4504, GOST12820/12821-80 etc - PN6, PN10, PN16, PN25, PN40, PN63, PN100
SANS/SABS 1123 - Class 600/3, 1000/3, 1600/3, 2500/3, 4000/3
2. Pipe Fittings
ASME(ANSI) Standards
B16.9    Factory-Made Wrought Steel Butt-Welding Fittings
B16.28   Wrought Steel Butt-Welding Short Radius Elbows and Returns
B16.25   Butt Welding Ends
B36.10   Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe
B36.19   Stainless Steel Pipe

ASTM Standards
A105    Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping Applications
A234    Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature Service
A403    Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings
A420    Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Low Temperature Service
A815    Wrought Ferric, Ferric/Austenitic, and Martensitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings

MSS Standards
SP-43    Wrought Stainless Steel Butt-Welding Fittings
SP-75    High Test Wrought Butt-Welding Fittings
SP-79    Socket Welding Reducer Inserts
SP-87    Factory-Made Butt-Welding Fittings for Class I Unclear Piping Applications

JIS/KS Standards
JIS B2311/KS B1522    Steel Butt-Welding Pipe Fittings for Ordinary Use
JIS B2312/KS B1541    Steel Butt-Welding Pipe Fittings
JIS B2313/KS B1543    Steel Plate Butt-Welding Pipe Fittings
JIS B2220    Steel Welding Pipe Flanges

DIN Standards
2605-1    Steel Butt-Welding Pipe Fittings; Elbows and Bends with Reduced Pressure Factor
2609        Steel Butt-Welding Pipe Fittings; Technical Delivery Conditions
2615-1    Steel Butt-Welding Pipe Fittings; Tees with Reduced Pressure Factor
2615-2    Steel Butt-Welding Pipe Fittings; Tees for Use at Full Service Factor
2616-1    Steel Butt-Welding Pipe Fittings; Eccentric Reducers with Reduced Pressure Factor
2616-2    Steel Butt-Welding Pipe Fittings; Reducers for Use at Full Service Pressure Factor
2617        Steel Butt-Welding Pipe Fittings; Caps

BS Standards
BS1965   Steel Butt-Welding Pipe Fittings
BS4504   Circular Flanges for Pipes, Valves and Fittings

EN Standards
10253-1   Butt-Welding Pipe Fittings; Wrought Carbon Steel for General Use and Without Specific Inspection Requirements

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